Coma is an extended period of unconscious stage, more specifically speaking coma is profound unconscious stage. The affected patient doesn’t show any response to stimuli such as light, pain etc.
In general coma may be due to many reasons but mainly because of 3 reasons.
1) Diseases related to brain.
2) Due to diseases of other organs.
3) Other reasons are alcohol and drugs consumption. Inhalation of poisonous gases such as carbondioxide, cyanide, it may also occur because of sunstroke.
COMA due to SUNSTROKE- Those who are affected by sunstroke are at risk of coma. If such condition arises then sponging with cold water gives relief to the patient.
COMA due to DIABETES- Those who suffer from low sugar level are at high risk of come. Normally because of Doctor’s advice diabetic patients take medicines regularly on time but problem arises when those medicines are taken without meals and because of that the sugar level falls below 100-140mg/dl to as low as 30-20 making the patient at high risk of coma. In such conditions the patient should be given chocolates or any other sugar substances to bring the sugar level to normal.
Diabetic coma is of 2 more types which occur sometimes because of improper usage of medicines or because of lack of treatment to diabetes.
HYPEROSMOLAR COMA- If the sugar level rises above 500mg/dl then there is risk of coma.
KETOACIDOTIC COMA- It occurs due to increase in number of waste and toxic products in the human body.
In both these cases insulin should be administered to the affected patient to bring back the effected patient to conscious state.
HYPONITRIC COMA- In our body there are many minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium. The normal level of sodium in our body is 140-150 milliEquivalents/lite (mEq/L), and if it goes below 110 then there is risk of coma. Those who are blood pressure patients are at risk of this. Reason to maintain blood pressure Doctor’s advise to decrease the intake of salt consumption and some patients avoid salt intake fully. And these patients sodium level may fall below 110mEq/L and may result in coma.
HYPERNITRIC COMA- It occurs because of increase in the sodium level.
FIBRIAL COMA- Severe fever may result in coma.
CARBONDIOXIDE NARCOSIS- In bronchitis patient’s carbondioxide may get deposit in lungs and this carbondioxide from lungs may reach brain. Such patients are at risk of coma.
COMA DUE TO ALCOHOL- There are many reasons for coma due to alcohol consumption. Too much consumption of alcohol may result in brain damage. Sometimes because of alcohol intake the person may go unconscious and he may fell on his head resulting in head injury which may result in blood clot leading to coma.
Thiamine deficiency may also lead to coma.